Many special education services are made available to ensure that a child with a disability receives the best education possible that is appropriate to their impairment. Most services should be available to children within the public school system. Students in private school systems, as well as early intervention and Head Start programs, may have access to the same services.
Special education services available include:
- Assistive Technology Device
- Assistive Technology Service
- Behavioral Intervention Plan
- Counseling Services
- General Curriculum
- Home-Based Instruction
- Home Tutoring
- Interpreting Services
- Medical Services
- Mobility Services
- Non-Academic Services and Extracurricular Services
- Occupational Therapy
- Orientation and Mobility Services
- Physical Education
- Physical Therapy
- Psychological Services
- Recreation and Therapeutic Recreation
- Related Services
- School Health Services
- School Health Services
- School Nurse Services
- Social Work Services in School
- Speech-Language Pathology Services
- Student Support and Accommodations
- Supplementary Aids and Service
- Transition Services
- Travel Training
- Vocational Education
The special education team and the process will discern:
- the timeframe for services to be provided
- the frequency of services provided during that timeframe
- the length of time services will be provided per session
- the location of where services will be provided
These services are briefly defined below.
Audiology involves a child’s capability to hear. Hearing loss may occur in one or both ears. An audiologist will determine if hearing loss is present, in which ear, and to what extent. When possible, hearing aids or therapies will be prescribed, and the audiologist will assist with training and treatment.
Assistive Technology Device
Assistive technology device is a piece of equipment that minimizes or removes the impact of a child’s impairment. Examples include wheelchairs which maximize mobility, and hearing aids which increase hearing.
Assistive Technology Services
Assistive technology services are organizations that aid parents and children in one or more aspects of finding, paying for, training, and using assistive technology devices. Many organizations assist in paying for or leasing equipment, as well as developing the device. As part of their service, they will usually provide training for use of the equipment.
Behavioral intervention plans involve assessing a child’s current behavior, including their actions and the causes of the actions. Dependent on these findings, a plan will be created to remove, minimize, or treat the causes of behavioral issues.
Counseling services are in place for both the child and family. They may utilize social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, teachers, guidance counselors, and other trained professionals. The goal is to provide support and build coping and adaptive techniques.
General curriculum is the term defining the standard education program that a child without impairment would go through. Whenever possible, a child should be involved in the general curriculum, or a form of schooling as close as possible (and appropriate to a child’s condition).
Hearing services are provided to children with hearing impairment, which includes deafness, impaired hearing, and deaf-blindness, a combination of impaired vision and hearing.
Home tutoring occurs when a student is schooled at home by an external teacher, typically with certifications and credentials.
Interpreting is the translation of one language into another. This can be both audibly or with various sign languages, or from one into the other.
Itinerant is the term for a school employee who works in different locations
Medical services are provided to students on various levels. It may include administering medications to students or providing first aid or other medical procedures.
Nonacademic Services and Extracurricular Services
Nonacademic services and extracurricular services are the activities associated with school that do not occur within the classroom. This includes busing and transportation, clubs and sports, health services, and external organizations to assist children with impairment.
Occupational therapy is physical therapy that aims to restore or improve a child’s ability to perform specific daily tasks.
Orientation and Mobility Services
Orientation and mobility services are provided to children with visual impairment. This can include the teaching of spatial navigation using other senses such as touch and sound, the use of other tools such as a long cane, and other techniques that increase the ease of mobility.
Paraprofessional is a person who is trained but must be overseen by a qualified professional in order to perform their duties.
Physical education is classes and activities that teach and promote physical activity through games, sports, aquatics, and other appropriate actions.
Physical therapy is treatment and rehabilitation of impairment or injury that involves physical activity. The goal is through movement, stretching, exercising and other techniques to increase a child’s capability and mobility.
Psychological services are provided to increase a child’s emotional well-being and to ensure mental health. This can include the use of psychologists, psychiatrists (who are permitted to prescribe medication), counselors and other appropriately trained individuals.
Recreation is activities that allow educators to assess a child’s capabilities while providing fun and enjoyment and the opportunity to learn social and behavioral skills.
Related services are nonacademic needs that are required for children with impairment. This includes many of the services listed here
Every child is entitled to a free and appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment. Some children require aids and supports. Parents are urged to research and meet with educators in the public and private sectors to decide the appropriate education path to meet their child’s needs.
About Special Education
- The Value of Education
- Special Education Legislation
- Special Education Options
- Eligibility for Special Education
- Special Education Assessments
- Special Education Planning Team
- Special Education Services
- Types of Special Education Plans
- School Transitions
- Dispute Resolution
- School Nutrition Programs
- Adaptive Sports in the Public School System